Aquaculture is the farming of fish, algae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, and other organisms that involves cultivating of saltwater and freshwater populations under controlled conditions. The farmers involved in aqua farming impose some intervention during the raring process in order to get maximum production like controlled feeding, regular stocking, and protection from predators, etc. Fish meal is an important factor in the growth of farm animals for breed and feed. It’s a commercial product that is calorically dense and at a low cost of production and not used for human consumption. The fish meal should be enriched with an excellent amino acid profile, high protein content, high digestibility, and lack of anti-nutrients. Most freshwater fish species required an intake of essential amino acid profiles to maintain their protein necessities, energy deposition, and health preservation. However, the inadequate availability of fishmeal has created a need for a replacement, taking into account all possible metabolic or physiological consequences.
Feed formulation is shifting to alternate protein sources using animal proteins by blending plant-based protein concentrate and supplemental amino acids from plant sources. Such type of feed should contain the amount of amino acid that meets the requirements of freshwater fish in the right proportion to increase growth and provide a better cost-benefit to fish farmers in developing countries.
Many attempts have been taken to produce high-quality animal products through efficient utilization of natural substances from plants. Sink et al. (2010) found that the growth rates of channel catfish fry fed soybean meal did not vary from the fish fed fishmeal protein. Ruttanavut et al. (2009) and Huo et al. (2016) informed that the intestinal function and growth performance of Aigamo ducks and weaned piglets were improved with supplementation of dietary bamboo charcoal powder and bamboo vinegar solution. Quaiyum (2014) stated that plant-based substances include bamboo charcoal; wood charcoal and coconut shell charcoal are not described in the available scientific literature but are used locally in conventional fish farming.
Bamboo charcoal can be used as a universal adsorbent due to its numerous benefits as an environmentally-friendly natural substance that is rich in flavonoids, amino acids and several other polysaccharide compounds with synergistic inhibition potentials. Li et al. (2014) evaluated the essential amino acid composition of tropical bamboo materials to be used as potential organic fish feed supplement.
Novel research appeared in the Pakistan Journal of Nutrition showed that lysine and methionine (amino acids) were present in the bamboo charcoal suggesting its potential use as a fish feed supplement to enhance fish growth performance in aquaculture.