Water is a driving factor for the metabolic process in the plant, so it is vital for agriculture. If the soil is well irrigated, the development of the plant will be good and so will be the productivity. Water availability has a direct relationship to plant growth. Therefore, in dryland crops, water is the major limiting factor. The major source of water for dryland crops is rain. The changes in the time, amount, and intensity of rainfall can therefore affect the yield, which is why planting patterns should be properly managed for these regions. Soil water balance (balance between groundwater reserves in soil) information is one of the available methods for effective land planning, suitability of agricultural land, planting and harvesting schedules. To increase regional income in the agricultural regions, the optimization of regional economic resources is obligatory.
Another way to increase production and encourage farmers is by mapping food lands by the government, but such mapping requires different variables, like water balance calculations. Water balance in turn depends upon factors like surface temperature, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. It is evident that for the calculation of water balance, rainfall is a changing variable.
Load Sabaruddin analyzed soil water balance to determine the planting time of crops on Dryland in Indonesia. The primary objective of the study was to learn about water supplies, their uses, and potential water loss by plant water balance, which will help in designing cropping patterns in Indonesia. The investigation was carried out in Ranomeeto, Indonesia in the Laboratory of Soil Department of Agriculture Faculty at Halu Oleo University. They used fieldwork maps, rainfall and temperature data, free soil survey, and soil analysis. Soil texture, structure, permeability, porosity, depth, slope, surface rock conditions, draining conditions, and altitude (by Global Position System) was done.
They found that the solid drainage conditions were good with dominantly sandy soil texture. Effective depth was in the medium range. The findings of the slope predicted risk of erosion was very low to moderate, while the risk of flooding was very low. The examined soil was predominantly acidic. The groundwater availability varied with the location. Soil texture regulates the water system, ease of processing, and structure of the soil.
The soil texture observed in the study was dominantly sandy loam. Consequently, the texture of dusty clay and dandy clay had a low flood hazard due to the ease of passing of water through the soil. The soil chemistry showed different criteria as the soil’s chemical content kept transforming soil biota, thus fluctuating soil’s chemical composition. With acidic pH, the soil’s C-organic was low and low organic matter content.
In short, the study established that soil is greatly dependent on water supply from rainfall, which makes water management even more important. The analysis of the contribution of surface water to soil water in plant root zone showed that the region under study had 6 months long growth period from November to July. Thus, the planting will be most suitable at the beginning of November and May. farmers can take advantage of this finding for planting to minimize the risks of crop failure and increasing crop productivity.
soil texture, water deficit, soil texture, organic matter, properties of soil, planting time