Peanut which is scientifically known as Arachis hypogaea L. widely consumed as a complementary food item in Indonesia. Indonesia is known to produce its own new peanut varieties, however; the old Kelinci and Gadjah variants remain popular. Currently, 34 varieties of peanut were cultivated from Spain and Valencia.
According to the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, the Talam variant can yield 3.2 t ha–1 of peanut seed 90 days after planting. Talam was a Spanish type of peanut that is resistant to a fungal pathogen called Aspergillus flavus. Khotimah (2019) elaborated how Talam variety was produced. They stated that “Talam was produced by selective breeding from Giraffe (drought and acidic soil tolerant variant) to the ICGV 91283 variant at the ninth generation (i.e., F9)”.
Polyploid plants showed significant results regarding growth rate and size and resistance of plants as compared to the diploid plants. Luo et al. (2018) proclaimed that artificial polyploidization using colchicines from autumn crocus was reported to be successful in various plant species. There is a spike in demand for peanuts in Indonesia and it’s a daunting task to meet the demands of buyers. It has been notified that the production of peanuts can be escalated by plant polyploidization.
Muarifin et al. (2021) designed research in order to investigate the cytological and phenotypic characters of the Talam peanut after the application of catharanthine from the periwinkle extract. This research was conducted from October 2017 to May 2019 at several locations.
For this purpose, six different periwinkle leaf extract concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25%) were used to induce peanut polyploidy by 12 and 24 hrs of induction. These were compared to negative (water) and positive (0.1% colchicines) controls by observing the morphological character, Squash slice, and flow cytometry. The main objective of this study was to find out the optimal concentration of periwinkle extract application for peanut chromosome polyploidization.
The results of this study showed that all treated peanuts showed improved phenotypes such as higher leaf number, main stem height, and pod number as compared to the negative control. Squash slice and flow cytometry showed that the chromosome number was doubled after 24 hrs of treatment with 0.15% periwinkle extract.
The crux of the matter is any level of periwinkle extract application can significantly boost up the performance of peanut plants because Catharanthine content of periwinkle leaf was successful to induce polyploidization. Based on study, the optimal formula for peanut polyploidization was 0.15% of periwinkle extract after 24 hrs incubation.
In conclusion, polyploidization plays a vital role in improving shoot growth and yield of the peanut plant as treated peanuts had better morphological performance i.e., higher leaf number, stem height, and pod number. Last but not the least, this study will provide great help for the development of peanut plant cultivars.
Induced Polyploidy, Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., Indonesia, Talam variety, Catharanthus roseus, Phenolic Extract, cytometry.